2. Introduction of MSM policies/rationale at the time
3. Evolution of policies
4. From precaution to risk management
|Country||Policy||Contributing reason for change from lifetime deferral|
|South Africa||6-month MSM donor deferral||Implemented single sample NAT for HIV, HCV, HBV|
|Argentina, Australia, UK, Hungary, Sweden, Czech Republic, Brazil||12-month MSM donor deferral||Harmonizing policy for risky sexual behavior|
|New Zealand, Canada||5-year MSM donor deferral||New Zealand: Implemented single sample NAT for HIV, HBV, HCV|
|Canada: Risk analysis, and extensive consultation with scientific experts and with patient and community groups|
|USA, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Norway, Hong Kong, Denmark, Finland, France, Mexico, Slovenia, and Iceland||Lifetime MSM donor deferral||Not applicable|
|Spain, Italy, Poland, Russia||No specific MSM deferral policy||Deferrals are now based on time period following the change of sexual partner, and assessment of risky sexual behavior – regardless of orientation|
- Goldman M.
- Yi Q.L.
- Ye X.
- Tessier L.
- O’Brien S.F.
|USA||1983 – lifetime deferral||None|
|Canada||1983 – lifetime deferral suggestion||Response was criticized, withdrew deferral suggestion|
|1985 – lifetime deferral mandated||2012 – submission to regulator to change to 5-year deferral|
|2013 – 5-year deferral||2013 – Regulator approval for 5-year deferral|
|UK (England, Wales, Scotland)||1985 – lifetime deferral||2011 – 12-month deferral|
|South Africa||2001 – 5-year deferral instituted by new national blood service||2006 – 5-year deferral changed to 6-month deferral|
|Australia||Individual states and territories all had their own version of an indefinite deferral||Rolling introduction of a 12-month deferral from 1996 to 2000|
|New Zealand||1998 – 10-year deferral||2008 – 5-year deferral|
5. Evaluating the impact of policy changes
- Vamvakas E.C.
- Seed C.R.
- Kiely P.
- Law M.
- Keller A.J.
- Seed C.R.
- Kiely P.
- Law M.
- Keller A.J.
- Flanagan P.
- Davison K.L.
- Conti S.
- Brailsford S.R.
- Saberton P.J.
- Paez A.
- Newbold K.B.
- Heddle N.M.
- Commission of inquiry on the blood system in Canada. Final report. Vol. 3. Canadian Government Publishing, 1997
- Blood Feuds: AIDS, blood, and the politics of medical disaster.From Trust to Tragedy: HIV/AIDS and the Canadian Blood System. Oxford University Press, New York1999: 127-159
- MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1983; 32: 450-451
- Transfusion-associated HIV infection: epidemiology, prevention and public policy.AIDS. 1988; 2: 239-248
- Epidemiology of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Epidemiol Rev. 1985; 7: 1-21
- Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) 205 from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS.Science. 1984; 224: 500-503
- Scientific background on the risk engendered by reducing the lifetime blood donation deferral period for men who have had sex with men.Transfus Med Rev. 2009; 23: 85-102
- The success of precaution? Managing the risk of transfusion transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.Transfusion. 2004; 44: 1475-1478https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2004.04116.x
- Deferral of males who had sex with other males.Vox Sang. 2011; 101: 339-367
- Donor understanding and attitudes about current and potential deferral criteria for high-risk sexual behavior.Transfusion. 2011; 51: 1829-1834https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03078.x
- Men Having sex with men donor deferral risk assessment: an analysis using risk management principals.Transfus Med Rev. 2008; 22: 35-57
- Why are all men who have had sex with men even once since 1977 indefinitely deferred from donating blood?.Transfusion. 2009; 49: 1037-1042https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02175.x
- The impact of male-to-male sexual experience on risk profiles of blood donors.Transfusion. 2005; 45: 404-413
- No evidence of a significantly increased risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in Australia subsequent to implementing a 12-month deferral for men who have had sex with men.Transfusion. 2010; 50: 2722-2730https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02793.x
- How should we assess risk behaviour when determining donor deferral?.Reflections on the MSM deferral. Biologicals. 2012; 40: 173-175https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2011.10.009
- The risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV from blood donations of men who have sex with men, 12 months after last sex with a man: 2005–2007 estimates from England and Wales.Vox Sang. 2013; 105: 85-88https://doi.org/10.1111/vox.12024
- Evidence-based policy and practice leads to changes in the criteria for MSM to donate blood.Transfus Med Hemother. 2013; 40: 155-158https://doi.org/10.1159/000351770
- The risks and benefits of accepting men who have had sex with men as blood donors.Transfusion. 2003; 43: 25-33
- Geographical variations in the correlates of blood donor turnout rates: an investigation of Canadian metropolitan areas.Int J Health Geogr. 2009; 8: 56https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-8-56
- Sufficient blood, safe blood: can we have both?.BMC Med. 2012; 10: 29
- The attitude of Canadian university students toward a behavior-based blood donor health assessment questionnaire.Transfusion. 2011; 51: 742-752
- The Krever Commission—10 years later.CMAJ. 2007; 177: 1387-1389https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.071333
User LicenseCreative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs |
For non-commercial purposes:
- Read, print & download
- Redistribute or republish the final article
- Text & data mine
- Translate the article
- Reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works (except for the author)
- Sell or re-use for commercial purposes
Elsevier's open access license policy