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Objective: To evaluate the clinical presentation and outcome of imported malaria.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with imported malaria admitted to the Communicable Disease Centre (CDC), Singapore (a 130-bed tertiary referral center) from January 1992 to December 1993. An imported case was defined as a smear-positive infection that was acquired in another country.
Results: Among 200 malaria patients hospitalized at CDC, 168 imported cases (137 males and 31 females, 131 nonresidents and 37 residents) were studied. The mean age was 31.6 ± 10.5 years. The countries visited were India (49.4%), Indonesia (16.7%), and Bangladesh (13%). Five patients had chemoprophylaxis and 36 patients had experienced previous malaria infection. The predominant symptoms were fever (97.6%), chills (79.2%), and rigors (67.9%). Hepatomegaly was detected in 56 (33.3%) and splenomegaly in 49 patients (29.2%). Plasmodium vivax was present in 132 patients, Plasmodium falciparum in 29, and mixed P. vivax and P. falciparum in 7 patients. Parasitemia ranged from 0.1 % to 8.0%. Of the vivax cases, 130 were treated with chloroquine, followed by primaquine in 123 patients. Quinine was given to 36 patients (29 falciparum malaria and 7 mixed infections). Median time to fever defervescence was 2 days. Complications occurred in three patients (2 with shock and 1 with pulmonary edema). According to World Health Organization gravity criteria, body temperature over 40°C was detected in six patients, bilirubinemia higher than 50 μmol/L in nine, parasitemia over 5% in five, glycemia less than 2.2 mmol/L in two patients. There were five relapses. No death was recorded.
Conclusion: Plasmodium vivax is the most common cause of imported malaria, with the majority acquired from the Indian subcontinent. Only a few patients presented with severe malaria.
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Accepted: May 14, 1999
Received: January 6, 1999
© 1999 Published by Elsevier Inc.
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