Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
Personal Protective Measures during the COVID-19 Pandemic in GermanyThe first case of COVID-19 in Germany was reported on January 27, 2020 (Bavarian State Ministry of Health and Care, 2020). The virus SARS-CoV-2 spreads fast, and within the first two months, more than 42,000 cases had been notified (Robert Koch Institute, 2021). Containment of the virus was not only complicated by the fact that it was found to be contagious even before the onset of symptoms but also because some individuals can live through an infection without showing any symptoms and still infect others (Almadhi et al., 2021; Buitrago-Garcia et al., 2020).
Successful Treatment of a Patient With Severe COVID-19 Using an Integrated Approach Addressing Mast Cells and Their MediatorsSARS-CoV-2 infects cells, leading to a complex immune response that involves the release of mediators, most of which are released from mast cells, leading to lung edema, fibrosis, inflammation, and microthromboses—hallmarks of COVID-19. Here, we report on a patient who was initially hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia as well as physical and mental fatigue. Despite having been treated with albuterol, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, convalescent plasma, and dexamethasone, her condition continued to worsen to the extent that she was considered for double lung transplant.
The impact of COVID-19 on health care–associated infections in intensive care units in low- and middle-income countries: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findingsBefore the appearance and worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, a pervasive decrease in health care–associated infection (HAI) incidence had been observed across hospitals in the United States (Weiner-Lastinger et al., 2021b). Throughout 2020, as COVID-19 swept across the United States in multiple waves of infections, regions experienced steep surges in cases and hospitalizations (Ripa et al., 2021). Some studies specifically noted the occurrence of secondary infections in patients with COVID-19 (Ripa et al., 2021).
Country differences in transmissibility, age distribution and case-fatality of SARS-CoV-2: a global ecological analysisObjectives The first COVID-19 pandemic waves in many low-income countries appeared milder than initially forecasted. We conducted a country-level ecological study to describe patterns in key SARS-CoV-2 outcomes by country and region and explore associations with potential explanatory factors, including population age structure and prior exposure to endemic parasitic infections. Methods We collected publicly available data and compared them using standardisation techniques. We then explored the association between exposures and outcomes using random forest and linear regression.
Endotheliopathy marked by high von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen in COVID-19 is associated with poor outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysisCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently one of the most common diseases in the world, and has a considerable death toll (WHO, 2021). Although most patients have mild–moderate clinical manifestations, a significant proportion of patients develop life-threatening complications (Lim et al., 2020; Pranata et al., 2020a, 2021c). Complications caused by coagulopathy are among the most important. Activation of the coagulation pathway and endothelial cells (ECs) is a hallmark of severe COVID-19, which is consistent with high rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), pulmonary embolism (PE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (Mancini et al., 2021a; Ward et al., 2021).
Evaluation of the AMP SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test in a hospital settingThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a broad clinical spectrum known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China (Zhu et al., 2020; Zhou et al., 2020). Within a short time, a worldwide spread led to the current pandemic that will presumably remain the leading infectious disease topic in 2021 (WHO, 2020a).
Usefulness of the COVID-GRAM and CURB-65 scores for predicting severity in patients with COVID-19In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in the city of Wuhan, China (Sohrabi et al., 2020). Spreading around the world in the early part of 2020, this disease outbreak is now considered a pandemic, with more than 45 million cases worldwide and more than 1 100 000 deaths by the end of October 2020, according to the World Health Organization (who.int/emergencies, 2020).
Candesartan as a tentative treatment for COVID-19: A prospective non-randomized open-label studyCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency (World Health Organization, 2021). Hundreds of millions of people have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the time of writing. Although most patients with COVID-19 are asymptomatic or experience only mild influenza-like illness (Day, 2020), a significant proportion may develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ failure (MOF) and death (Lim et al., 2020).
Active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization and mortality in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of adjusted effect estimatesRepurposing of available drugs for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gained interest due to the scarcity of drugs proven to be useful in these patients. Dexamethasone, statins, metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and renin–angiotensin system inhibitors have shown clinical benefits for severe and critically ill patients, especially those who are mechanically ventilated (Castiglione et al., 2020; Lim and Pranata, 2020a; Lukito et al., 2020; Pranata et al., 2020c; Rakhmat et al., 2021).
The initial impact of a national BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine rolloutA two-dose regimen of BNT162b2, the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, was shown to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 by around 95% in a randomized clinical trial and in a mass national vaccination program (Dagan et al., 2021; Polack et al., 2020). On 23 December 2020, Qatar started a national BNT162b2 rollout programme, in addition to existing COVID-19 public health control measures. The rollout initially prioritised healthcare workers, individuals aged ≥50 years, and those with chronic or immunosuppressive medical conditions.
Third wave of COVID-19 in Madrid, SpainMadrid has been the epicenter of COVID-19 in Spain, primarily due to its high population density and mobility. The city has 3.3 million people, with 6.8 million across the metropolitan area. Up to March 15 2021, roughly 605 000 persons had been diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 14 000 had died in the Madrid region (Ministerio de Sanidad, 2021; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2021). These figures refer to laboratory-confirmed cases, which underestimate the true number as testing access was limited during the earlier stages of the pandemic (Soriano and Barreiro, 2020).
Impact of COVID-19 on vasooclusive crisis in patients with sickle cell anaemiaCOVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Gorbalenya et al., 2020), has spread to 191 countries and all continents ( https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html ), and the pandemic shows no signs of coming under control, despite global efforts. The pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented number of deaths globally, with widespread lockdowns and disruption to world economies and businesses (Fauci et al., 2020). The clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 vary from mild in approximately 80% of cases, severe in 15% and critical in 5%.
Efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa-2b in moderate COVID-19: A phase II, randomized, controlled, open-label studyA novel coronavirus disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 (COVID-19) in a cluster of patients in Wuhan, China, which has been designated a worldwide pandemic (Cucinotta and Vanelli, 2020; Spinelli and Pellino, 2020). As of 31 January 2021, there have been 102,139,771 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide, including 2,211,762 reported deaths (WHO, 2021).
Comparative assessment of mortality risk factors between admission and follow-up models among patients hospitalized with COVID-19The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 100 million and killed nearly 2.5 million people worldwide over the past few months (JHU, 2020). Although most patients are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms, 10% of them require hospitalization and 5% advanced medical support (Wu and McGoogan, 2020). Early identification of severe cases that will demand longer hospitalizations and increased costs can help guide medical decisions and manage hospital resources, especially in economically deprived areas.
Main differences between the first and second waves of COVID-19 in Madrid, SpainThe emergence and rapid global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), from Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 represented an unprecedented phenomenon in medicine. COVID-19 continues to challenge health services and disrupt social and economic activities globally. In Spain, the first wave commenced in mid-March 2020 and lasted for 3 months. It finally abated due to strict lockdown and home confinement. Following relaxation of measures during the summer, a second wave commenced in mid-September 2020 and extended until Christmas 2020.
Infection sustained by lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 is characterised by longer persistence and higher viral RNA loads in nasopharyngeal swabsStarting from March 2020, nasopharyngeal swabs collected in three provinces (Chieti, L’Aquila and Teramo) of Abruzzo, a central Region of Italy, were tested daily for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale” (IZSAM) (Danzetta et al., 2020).
Risk and predictive factors of prolonged viral RNA shedding in upper respiratory specimens in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to an Italian reference hospitalThe emergence and rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health emergency and one of our century's greatest challenges. As of February 24, 2021, approximately 111 million confirmed cases and more than 2.4 million deaths had been reported worldwide (Anon, 2020).
Prioritizing second-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines through low-dosage challenge studiesIn controlled human infection studies (‘challenge studies’), research participants, randomized into an intervention and a control group, are deliberately infected so that researchers can test interventions or investigate other scientific hypotheses. The UK government has announced its support for challenge studies for SARS-CoV-2, which began in early 2021 (Callaway, 2020). First-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have high efficacy in protecting against disease (Grady, 2020), but the longterm safety and effectiveness of these vaccines are currently uncertain (Grady, 2020).
Temporal profile of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in posterior nasopharyngeal samples: Analysis of 944 patients in Apulia, ItalyFrom early 2020 a new Coronavirus disease named COVID-19 has spread worldwide with Italy being one of the most affected countries, albeit with substantial regional differences (IstitutoSuperiorediSanità; WHO). In the Apulia region (southern Italy) approximately 7900 cases of COVID-19 infection have been reported so far, with a peak at the end of April and a substantial decrease from May-June. The rate of hospitalization and number of severe cases also fell during this time (IstitutoSuperiorediSanità).
No clinical benefit in mortality associated with hydroxychloroquine treatment in patients with COVID-19The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. As of June 22, 2020, a total of 2,275,645 COVID-19 cases and 119,923 related deaths had been reported in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Reports from around the world indicate that this disease will continue to spread with the potential to cause severe illness in 10%–20% of those infected and to lead to hospitalization, ICU admission, ventilator support, and death.
Possible aerosol transmission of COVID-19 associated with an outbreak in an apartment in Seoul, South Korea, 2020The possibility of aerosol transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains controversial. An aerosol is defined as a suspension of particles of <5 μm in the air (or in a gas), which is small enough to reach the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli (Wilson et al., 2020). The WHO merely acknowledged that aerosol transmission might be another transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 without further response, and international and governmental guidelines retain the rule of 2 m of social distance based on droplet transmission (Morawska and Milton, 2020; Wilson et al., 2020).
A high-throughput drug screening strategy against coronavirusesThe emergence and re-emergence of coronavirus (CoV) infections have continually caused serious public health concerns over past decades. Severe acute CoV infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, and the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2, have become a growing and long-lasting global threat (Gao, 2018). The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was deemed to occur in December 2019 and identified as a new type of coronavirus in early January 2020 (Burki, 2020; Chen et al., 2020a; Gralinski and Menachery, 2020; Wu et al., 2020b; Zhou et al., 2020b).
Severe COVID-19 Infection and Pediatric Comorbidities: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisWhat is known What is new
Spread of COVID-19 and policy responses in Vietnam: An overviewThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread rapidly across the globe since December 2019. As of 26 October 2020, more than 43.5 million COVID-19 confirmed cases have been reported, with almost 1.2 million associated deaths (Johns Hopkins University, 2020). Furthermore, the number of confirmed cases is still increasing rapidly in many countries (World Health Organisation, 2020).
Efficacy and safety of favipiravir, an oral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, in mild-to-moderate COVID-19: A randomized, comparative, open-label, multicenter, phase 3 clinical trialA novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2), emerged in late December 2019, which resulted in the ongoing worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (World Health Organization, 2020; Zhou et al., 2020 Zhou et al., 2020). As of September 25, 2020, the Johns Hopkins University COVID-19 global dashboard reports 32,390,204 confirmed cases and 985,302 deaths worldwide attributed to SARS-CoV-2 (The Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins, 2020).