The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early 2020 has now become an unprecedented global health crisis (Zhu et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced that COVID-19 had the characteristics of a global pandemic (World Health Organization, 2019a). The pandemic has since accelerated at an exponential rate. Currently, COVID-19 has spread to more than 200 countries and regions around the world. As of 6 June 2020, there were 6 772 520 confirmed cases and 393 843 deaths from COVID-19 (World Health Organization, 2019b; Onder et al., 2020).