Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and humoral immunity in individuals with and without HIV in an African population: a prospective cohort studyThe SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded, encapsulated RNA virus that causes COVID-19 . SARS-CoV-2 has so far caused millions of infections and deaths since its identification in 2019 . There have been several waves of infections, with some countries experiencing up to four waves and increased transmissibility of the mutated virus with each successive wave [3,4].
Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV in British Columbia and comparisons with a matched HIV-negative cohort: a test-negative designPeople living with HIV (PLWH) appear to be at a higher risk for severe COVID-19 [1–5]. Several studies have now shown that those with low clusters of differentiation (CD4) count (<200 cells/mm3) or CD4 nadir, even with virologic suppression, are at a higher risk for worse outcomes, including severe COVID-19 and death [6–8]. Yet, the evidence regarding the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in this high-risk group remains sparse because PLWH have been largely under-represented in vaccine trials .
High prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pregnant women after the second wave of infections in the inner-city of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South AfricaIn South Africa, by the end of the second COVID-19 wave in early February 2021, which driven largely by the Beta variant (501Y.V2), almost 1.5 million COVID-19 cases and 47,000 deaths were recorded (National Institute for Communicable Diseases [NICD], 2021). By the end of September 2021, as South Africa exited the third wave, which was dominated by the Delta variant, just over 2.9 million diagnosed cases and more than 87,000 COVID-19-related deaths were reported (NDoH, 2021). Of these, more than one-third of cases and a quarter of deaths were from the Gauteng Province, the most densely populated province in South Africa, with the City of Johannesburg accounting for almost one-third of diagnosed cases (NDoH, 2021, NICD, 2021).
Immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysisThe transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. By August 19, 2022, more than 590 million have had confirmed COVID-19 and more than 6 million have died worldwide (World Health Organization, 2022). The morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and its complications and large-scale economic disruption have prompted an unprecedented pace in highly efficacious vaccine development (Berlin et al., 2020; Merad et al., 2022). As of August 19, 2022, a total of 12.4 billion vaccine doses have been administered (World Health Organization, 2022), and the most widely used are messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines, including BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech, New York, NY, USA-Mainz, Germany) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA) vaccines and viral vector vaccines, such as Ad26.CoV2.S (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ, USA), ChAdOx (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK), Sputnik V (Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia), and the traditional inactivated virus alum-adjuvanted candidate vaccine CoronaVac (Sinovac, Beijing, China) (Piccaluga et al.
Azithromycin use and outcomes in patients with COVID-19: an observational real-world studyCOVID-19, caused by the new SARS-CoV-2, continues to be widespread, with nearly 600 million cases and >6 million deaths worldwide as of August 29, 2022 (World Health Organization, 2022). Most patients with COVID-19 have flu-like syndrome with a variety of mild symptoms including rhinitis, pharyngitis, cough, and fever. However, some patients experience a more life-threatening disease characterized by respiratory failure, a proinflammatory state, and arterial thromboembolism, which may require hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (Bonaventura et al.
Risk Factors Associated with Severe/Critical COVID-19 in People Living with HIV-1Risk factors have been described as associated with severe forms of COVID-19 (Zhang et al., 2020). Persons living with HIV-1 (PLWH1) often carry such comorbidities. As shown by Bhaskaran et al (2021), PLWH1 are at a greater risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. Our objective was to determine the characteristics associated with the development of a severe or critical form of COVID-19 in a cohort of PLWH1 who were followed up at the Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital in Paris, France.
Transient increase in plasma HIV RNA after COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1272The latent viral reservoir is the main obstacle preventing HIV eradication, as the virus persists, integrated in long-lived quiescent cells. Immune stimulatory by their nature, vaccines have been evaluated as possible agents for ‘shock and kill’ strategies, which rely on using latency-reversing agents to activate HIV transcription and virion production in order to purge the reservoir.
Antimicrobial resistance: A challenge awaiting the post-COVID-19 eraAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health concern (Prestinaci, Pezzotti, & Pantosti, 2015). The main drivers of AMR include excess microbial exposure to antibiotic agents, mainly due to their overuse in agriculture and health facilities (Capozzi et al., 2013; Levy, 1998). On the other hand, progress in developing new antibiotics has remained stagnant due to scientific challenges, clinical hurdles, and low economic returns (Payne, Miller, Findlay, Anderson, & Marks, 2015). In addition to well-established factors that influence AMR, the overuse and misuse of existing antimicrobial agents have contributed to accelerating the spread of AMR during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic (Fig. 1).
COVID-19 and syndemic challenges in ‘Battling the Big Three’: HIV, TB and malariaAll countries where malaria is endemic have reported COVID-19 cases. The WHO African Region has experienced >1.5 million cases of COVID-19 (WHO, 2020a) and bears 90% of the global malaria burden. Significant efforts have led to a substantial reduction in malaria deaths in the last decade (WHO, 2019a) and enduring sustainability of malaria interventions and control programs is essential. As signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and malaria partly overlap, diagnostic guidance is inevitable in malaria-endemic settings.
The characteristics of HIV-positive patients with mild/asymptomatic and moderate/severe course of COVID-19 disease—A report from Central and Eastern EuropeThe on-going COVID-19 pandemic may affect many aspects of HIV care, from individual health to the continuation of antiretroviral treatment and its sustainability (Kowalska et al., 2020). It is currently assumed that there is no increased risk of infection, or of a more severe course of the COVID-19 disease among HIV-positive patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) (Anon, 2021). This condition may not be well fulfilled in many Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries, where the cascade of care is insufficient and there are many barriers to accessing cART (Balayan et al., 2019).
COVID-19 in people living with HIV: A multicenter case-series studyOn July 1, 2020 the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had affected around 10 million people, causing over 510 000 deaths (Johns Hopkins University, 2020). On the other hand, more than 3.4 million patients had recovered, and many countries had slowly restarted their return to the new reality after the implementation of unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as national lockdowns (Flaxman et al., 2020). Spain was one of the most affected countries, having reported its highest mortality in Madrid (Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias Sanitarias and Sanidad, 2020), which had increased by 161% since 2019 (Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, 2020a).
Maintaining robust HIV and tuberculosis services in the COVID-19 era: A public health dilemma in ZimbabweIn January 2020, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as the causative agent of an outbreak of viral pneumonia that broke out in Wuhan, Hubei, China (WHO, 2020a). The contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). In response, multiple countries have adopted various containment and mitigation measures aimed at curbing the spread of the virus.
Effect of a Previous History of Antiretroviral Treatment on Clinical Picture of Patients with Co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV: A Preliminary StudyThe outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) was caused by a type of beta coronavirus (Zhou et al., 2020), named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on February 11, 2020. The disease quickly spread across China and beyond. As of July 31, 2020, over 17.1 million confirmed cases including 668,910deaths were reported worldwide (World Health Organization, 2020a). At present, the diagnosis depends on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or gene sequencing from throat swab, sputum, or lower respiratory tract secretion (Li et al., 2020).
Concurrent COVID-19 and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a severely immunocompromised 25-year-old patientA 25-year-old male presented with profound hypoxemia despite use of a non-rebreather mask during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Chest X-ray showed a large right pneumothorax and extensive interstitial disease (Figure 1a). Hypoxemia continued despite chest tube placement, necessitating emergent intubation. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (Figure 1b–d) was obtained and nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR was positive. HIV serology was positive and his absolute CD4+ count was 32 cells/mm3.
HIV care in times of the COVID-19 crisis — Where are we now in Central and Eastern Europe?The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has hit the European region disproportionately. Many HIV clinics share staff and logistics with infectious disease facilities, which are now on the frontline in tackling COVID-19. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of the current pandemic situation on HIV care and continuity of antiretroviral treatment (ART) supplies in CEE countries.
One case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient co-infected by HIV with a low CD4+ T-cell countSince December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease, officially named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19, appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Patients present with severe viral pneumonia and respiratory illness. Lymphopenia has been considered as a poor prognostic factor for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (Leung et al., 2004) as well as COVID-19 (Qin et al., 2020). This study reports the clinical findings from a patient confirmed with COVID-19 who was also co-infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).