Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
A high-throughput drug screening strategy against coronavirusesThe emergence and re-emergence of coronavirus (CoV) infections have continually caused serious public health concerns over past decades. Severe acute CoV infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, and the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2, have become a growing and long-lasting global threat (Gao, 2018). The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was deemed to occur in December 2019 and identified as a new type of coronavirus in early January 2020 (Burki, 2020; Chen et al., 2020a; Gralinski and Menachery, 2020; Wu et al., 2020b; Zhou et al., 2020b).
From SARS to COVID-19: What we have learned about children infected with COVID-19A cluster of patients presented with pneumonia caused by an unknown pathogen that was linked to the seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Subsequently, a new coronavirus was identified by sequencing the whole genome of patient samples (Zhu et al., 2020a). It was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Gorbalenya et al., 2020), and the disease caused by the virus was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Potential fecal transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Current evidence and implications for public healthThe current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Hubei Province, China in December 2019 and spread rapidly to over 165 countries in approximately 3 months (Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering, 2020; Shanmugaraj et al., 2020). The primary routes of transmission of the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are through respiratory droplets and close person-to-person contact, but knowledge about other potential modes of transmission, e.g., fomite-based, vertical, and fecal–oral transmission, remains relatively sparse (Cai et al., 2020a; Chen et al., 2020a; Ghinai et al., 2020; Gu et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020; van Doremalen et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2020b; Xiao et al., 2020; Yeo et al., 2020).
The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: What we knowCoronaviruses (CoVs), a large family of single-stranded RNA viruses, can infect animals and also humans, causing respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and neurologic diseases (Weiss and Leibowitz, 2013). As the largest known RNA viruses, CoVs are further divided into four genera: alpha-coronavirus, beta- coronavirus, gamma-coronavirus and delta-coronavirus (Yang and Leibowitz, 2015). To date, there have been six human coronaviruses (HCoVs) identified, including the alpha-CoVs HCoVs-NL63 and HCoVs-229E and the beta-CoVs HCoVs-OC43, HCoVs-HKU1, severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) (Drosten et al., 2020), and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) (Zaki et al., 2012).