Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
Immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysisThe transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. By August 19, 2022, more than 590 million have had confirmed COVID-19 and more than 6 million have died worldwide (World Health Organization, 2022). The morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and its complications and large-scale economic disruption have prompted an unprecedented pace in highly efficacious vaccine development (Berlin et al., 2020; Merad et al., 2022). As of August 19, 2022, a total of 12.4 billion vaccine doses have been administered (World Health Organization, 2022), and the most widely used are messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines, including BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech, New York, NY, USA-Mainz, Germany) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA) vaccines and viral vector vaccines, such as Ad26.CoV2.S (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ, USA), ChAdOx (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK), Sputnik V (Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia), and the traditional inactivated virus alum-adjuvanted candidate vaccine CoronaVac (Sinovac, Beijing, China) (Piccaluga et al.
Transient increase in plasma HIV RNA after COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1272The latent viral reservoir is the main obstacle preventing HIV eradication, as the virus persists, integrated in long-lived quiescent cells. Immune stimulatory by their nature, vaccines have been evaluated as possible agents for ‘shock and kill’ strategies, which rely on using latency-reversing agents to activate HIV transcription and virion production in order to purge the reservoir.
The characteristics of HIV-positive patients with mild/asymptomatic and moderate/severe course of COVID-19 disease—A report from Central and Eastern EuropeThe on-going COVID-19 pandemic may affect many aspects of HIV care, from individual health to the continuation of antiretroviral treatment and its sustainability (Kowalska et al., 2020). It is currently assumed that there is no increased risk of infection, or of a more severe course of the COVID-19 disease among HIV-positive patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) (Anon, 2021). This condition may not be well fulfilled in many Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries, where the cascade of care is insufficient and there are many barriers to accessing cART (Balayan et al., 2019).
COVID-19 in people living with HIV: A multicenter case-series studyOn July 1, 2020 the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had affected around 10 million people, causing over 510 000 deaths (Johns Hopkins University, 2020). On the other hand, more than 3.4 million patients had recovered, and many countries had slowly restarted their return to the new reality after the implementation of unprecedented non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as national lockdowns (Flaxman et al., 2020). Spain was one of the most affected countries, having reported its highest mortality in Madrid (Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias Sanitarias and Sanidad, 2020), which had increased by 161% since 2019 (Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, 2020a).
Concurrent COVID-19 and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a severely immunocompromised 25-year-old patientA 25-year-old male presented with profound hypoxemia despite use of a non-rebreather mask during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Chest X-ray showed a large right pneumothorax and extensive interstitial disease (Figure 1a). Hypoxemia continued despite chest tube placement, necessitating emergent intubation. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (Figure 1b–d) was obtained and nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR was positive. HIV serology was positive and his absolute CD4+ count was 32 cells/mm3.
HIV care in times of the COVID-19 crisis — Where are we now in Central and Eastern Europe?The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has hit the European region disproportionately. Many HIV clinics share staff and logistics with infectious disease facilities, which are now on the frontline in tackling COVID-19. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of the current pandemic situation on HIV care and continuity of antiretroviral treatment (ART) supplies in CEE countries.