Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
Outcomes of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during resurgence driven by Omicron lineages BA.4 and BA.5 compared with previous waves in the Western Cape Province, South AfricaThe Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern has been dominant globally since November 2021, with several sublineages causing surges in infections (Iketani et al., 2022; Tegally et al., 2022; Viana et al., 2022). South Africa experienced an initial large BA.1 infection surge from November 2021 to January 2022. BA.1 was then replaced by BA.2 but with no increase in cases numbers, and this was followed by a BA.4/BA.5 infection surge between April and June 2022 (Tegally et al., 2022; Viana et al., 2022).
Open-label phase I/II clinical trial of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (FINLAY-FR-2) in combination with receptor binding domain-protein vaccine (FINLAY-FR-1A) in childrenProtecting children against COVID-19 is pivotal for controlling virus dissemination and reducing disease incidence. COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations among children and adolescents, firstly driven by the Delta variant and recently by Omicron, have risen sharply, even in countries with high adult vaccination coverage (Delahoy et al., 2021; Elliott et al., 2022). This context has accelerated the clinical trials of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for children (Ali et al., 2021; Frenck et al., 2021; Han et al., 2021; Wallace et al., 2021; Walter et al., 2021; Xia et al., 2022).
Anakinra or high-dose corticosteroids in COVID-19 pneumonia patients who deteriorate on low-dose dexamethasone: an observational study of comparative effectivenessSome patients with COVID-19 pneumonia display clinical and laboratory signs of a hyperinflammatory response, including markedly elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels, followed by rapid respiratory status decompensation and progression to multisystem organ failure. These observations led to the use of varying doses of corticosteroids and targeted anti-cytokine agents, including anakinra, an anti-interleukin (IL)-1 treatment, early in the pandemic.
Reduction in severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients owing to heterologous third and fourth-dose vaccines during the periods of delta and omicron predominance in ThailandAs of July 30, 2022, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to more than 582 million confirmed cases globally with more than 170 million in Asia and almost 5 million in Thailand alone (Mathieu et al., 2022). This has unfortunately resulted in almost 6.4 million deaths worldwide, 1.5 million deaths across Asia, and over 31,000 deaths in Thailand (Mathieu et al., 2022). While public health measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and appropriate hygiene measures were able to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the rapid development and deployment of vaccines were responsible for reducing the clinical impact of COVID-19 substantially (Doroshenko, 2021; Moore et al.
Comparative analysis of elderly hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or influenza A H1N1 virus infectionsThe SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and influenza A viruses are major pathogens that damage the respiratory system and can produce outbreaks of SARS, MERS, COVID‐19, and influenza A H1N1 virus pneumonia, respectively. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus are from the same genus and share many virological and epidemiological similarities. However, COVID-19 shows more similarities with influenza A H1N1 virus infections in the pattern and scale of spread than with SARS or MERS.
A large series of molecular and serological specimens to evaluate mother-to-child SARS-CoV-2 transmission: a prospective study from the Italian Obstetric Surveillance SystemThe ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is characterized by multiple epidemic waves associated with different viral strains with diverse transmissibility and lethality. The previous highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-1 and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus were associated with poor obstetric outcomes (Schwartz and Graham, 2020). Given the importance of understanding COVID-19’s impact on pregnant women, fetuses, and newborns, the Italian Obstetric Surveillance System (ItOSS), coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health-ISS), launched a nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study aimed at analyzing cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women with the purpose to provide useful indications to guide decision makers and support clinical practice (Donati et al.
High prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pregnant women after the second wave of infections in the inner-city of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South AfricaIn South Africa, by the end of the second COVID-19 wave in early February 2021, which driven largely by the Beta variant (501Y.V2), almost 1.5 million COVID-19 cases and 47,000 deaths were recorded (National Institute for Communicable Diseases [NICD], 2021). By the end of September 2021, as South Africa exited the third wave, which was dominated by the Delta variant, just over 2.9 million diagnosed cases and more than 87,000 COVID-19-related deaths were reported (NDoH, 2021). Of these, more than one-third of cases and a quarter of deaths were from the Gauteng Province, the most densely populated province in South Africa, with the City of Johannesburg accounting for almost one-third of diagnosed cases (NDoH, 2021, NICD, 2021).
SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Malaysia: displacement of B.1.617.2 with AY lineages as the dominant Delta variants and the introduction of Omicron during the fourth epidemic waveSince the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, COVID-19 continues to be an important health problem worldwide (Gao et al., 2021). The index case of COVID-19 was detected on December 1, 2019, in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China (Helmy et al., 2020; Valencia, 2020). As of January 2022, there were 380 million COVID-19 cases, with a mortality rate of 1.5% (Worldometer, 2022). COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped, nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA β-coronavirus (Zhou et al.
Baricitinib vs tocilizumab treatment for hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 and associated cytokine storm: a prospective, investigational, real-world studyThe ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has devastated countries. The race to find adequate therapies is ongoing, but significant progress has been made since 2019. Our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis revealed the need for targeting the dysregulated immune response. The term cytokine storm first appeared 30 years ago, describing a potentially life-threatening condition triggered by various pathogens, hematologic and immunological disorders, and is characterized by peripheral hyperactivation of T-lymphocytes, resulting in elevated cytokines levels, systemic inflammation, and end-organ damage (Chatenoud et al.
High-dose corticosteroids in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia: an observational study of comparative effectivenessThe optimal dose of corticosteroids in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncertain, particularly among patients with severe respiratory impairment (The WHO Rapid Evidence Appraisal for COVID-19 Therapies [REACT] Working Group, 2020), and practice remains varied. Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared high (12 mg) to low (6 mg) doses of dexamethasone in patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 pneumonia found no difference in mortality (Bouadma et al., 2022) or were inconclusive (COVID STEROID 2 Trial Group et al.
Effect of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19: a Bayesian network meta-analysisAs of August 5, 2022, nearly 600 million persons have been diagnosed with COVID-19, and more than 6 million individuals have died because of this disease (World Health Organization, 2022). Evidence has shown that a severely dysregulated immune response plays a critical role in patients with COVID-19 (Prete et al., 2020; Vabret et al., 2020).
Testing for COVID-19 during an outbreak within a large UK prison: an evaluation of mass testing to inform outbreak controlSince the first cases were identified in 2019, COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic which has disrupted economies and caused significant morbidity and mortality. With COVID-19 predominantly spread through aerosols and those in close contact at the highest risk, concern was voiced that institutions such as prisons would be at risk of large outbreaks (Burki, 2020), exacerbated by overcrowding and poor health of imprisoned people (Davies et al., 2020; Fazel et al., 2001). Coupled with difficulties implementing basic infection prevention and control measures because of limited access to handwashing points, crowded conditions, little control over social distancing, and movement of both staff and people, it was expected that prisons would become a hotspot for COVID-19 outbreaks (Burki, 2020).
Effects of COVID-19-targeted nonpharmaceutical interventions on children's respiratory admissions in China: a national multicenter time series studyCOVID-19 has exerted a profound influence on everyday life and the healthcare system worldwide. Since the outburst of COVID-19 in Wuhan city, China, in January 2020, a series of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been conducted nationwide. The NPIs refer to the combination of mask-wearing, handwashing, and social distancing, such as closing schools and public places, quarantining infected patients and close contacts, and travel restrictions (Fricke et al., 2021; Zhang et al., 2021a). These measures have effectively curbed the large-scale spread of the epidemic, keeping the number of people infected with COVID-19 in China under control (Tang and Abbasi, 2021).
Change in effectiveness of sotrovimab for preventing hospitalization and mortality for at-risk COVID-19 outpatients during an Omicron BA.1 and BA.1.1-predominant phaseWith fluctuating rates of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) products such as sotrovimab for outpatients who have recently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 have been critical, evidence-based treatments to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 surges on the health care system and improve COVID-19 outcomes among high-risk individuals (Aggarwal et al., 2022; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021; Ganesh et al., 2021; Huang et al., 2022; Jarrett et al., 2021; O'Horo et al.
Characteristics of long-COVID among older adults: a cross-sectional studyLong-COVID has been reported to affect a substantial portion of survivors of COVID-19, including those who experienced mild acute disease (Carter et al., 2022; Chen et al., 2022; Yan et al., 2021). In many of the cases, the affected individuals experience debilitating symptoms that affect their physical and cognitive function, impairing their quality of life. Recent longer-term follow-up studies show that many individuals do not experience full recovery even 1 year after infection (PHOSP-COVID Collaborative Group, 2022; Zhang et al.
Effect of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccination to Prevent COVID-19 in Thai Households (VacPrevent trial)COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection and caused the pandemic with high mortality. Household transmission is the most common transmission source in the countries with COVID-19 outbreaks (Pollán et al., 2020). In England, the secondary infection rate is 4-6.4 per 100 households (Hall et al., 2021). The secondary attack rate (SAR) in other countries is 16.3-53% (Grijalva et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020; Singanayagam et al., 2022). The systematic review demonstrated an average of 17% secondary infections (4-45%), and the SAR was 31.1% during the B.1.617.2 outbreak, whereas the high transmissibility in Thai households was 56% (Madewell et al.
Effectiveness of the neutralizing antibody sotrovimab among high-risk patients with mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 in QatarSeveral monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for the treatment of COVID-19 (Miguez-Rey et al., 2022). One of these is sotrovimab, which significantly reduced the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and death due to infection with pre-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in a randomized clinical trial (Gupta et al., 2021). The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency authorization to permit the use of sotrovimab for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in patients at high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 (US Food and Drug Administration, 2022).
Spike-specific T-cell responses in patients with COVID-19 successfully treated with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2Passive immunization by administering neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 is an effective therapeutic strategy in reducing both hospitalization and death related to COVID-19 (Dougan et al., 2021; Gupta et al., 2021; Montgomery et al., 2022; Weinreich et al., 2021). To date, the Food and Drug Administration has approved more than 30 SARS-CoV-2 moAbs for clinical trials. In Italy, five moAbs have been introduced into clinical practice for early treatment of COVID-19 following clearance by the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) (AIFA, 2022).
Seroprevalence of infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among health care users of Northern Italy: results from two serosurveys (October-November 2019 and September-October 2021)COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, was declared a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. As of June 12, 2022, there have been 533,160,628 confirmed cases worldwide, including over 6 million deaths (WHO, 2022).
Azithromycin use and outcomes in patients with COVID-19: an observational real-world studyCOVID-19, caused by the new SARS-CoV-2, continues to be widespread, with nearly 600 million cases and >6 million deaths worldwide as of August 29, 2022 (World Health Organization, 2022). Most patients with COVID-19 have flu-like syndrome with a variety of mild symptoms including rhinitis, pharyngitis, cough, and fever. However, some patients experience a more life-threatening disease characterized by respiratory failure, a proinflammatory state, and arterial thromboembolism, which may require hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (Bonaventura et al.
Comparison of antibody response durability of mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, and Ad26.COV2.S SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in healthcare workersVaccination with Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved/authorized COVID-19 vaccines is imperative to control the ongoing pandemic. Several studies have demonstrated robust similar or higher early anti-spike (anti-S), anti-S-receptor binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses after primary vaccination with mRNA-1273 compared with BNT162b2 and higher responses with both mRNA vaccines compared with Ad26.COV2.S (Collier et al., 2021; Debes et al., 2021; Naranbhai et al., 2022; Richards et al.
Nucleocapsid and spike antibody responses following virologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection: an observational analysis in the Virus Watch community cohortAntibodies produced following natural infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus which causes COVID-19, are known to provide some protection against reinfection for at least 6 months in the early stages of the pandemic (Hansen et al., 2021). The proportion of infected individuals who are N-antibody (anti-N) and S-antibody (anti-S) positive and the stability of the antibody response over time are not well established (Siggins et al., 2021). In the United Kingdom, surveillance has been largely through symptomatic testing with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays or asymptomatic testing through lateral flow device tests.
Pembrolizumab in combination with tocilizumab in high-risk hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (COPERNICO): A randomized proof-of-concept phase II studyThe rapid spread of an enveloped RNA betacoronavirus (2019) (Lu et al., 2020), SARS-CoV-2 (Guan et al., 2020), causing COVID-19, led to a global pandemic (declared by the World Health Organization [WHO] on March 11, 2020) (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020a), with more than 266 million cases and 5 million deaths worldwide (WHO, 2021).
Dedicated team to ambulatory care for patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen: Low rate of hospital readmissionThe current pandemic of COVID-19 infections has led to successive waves, depending on several factors such as host immunity and the viral variant of the SARS-CoV-2 (Hu et al., 2021; Rahman et al., 2021). The main target of the virus is the pulmonary tract, potentially leading to respiratory failure, especially in elderly patients and/or those with multiple comorbid conditions (McCullough et al., 2021). The combination of a huge number of cases and the limited hospital resources, especially in terms of intensive care units (ICUs), led to the necessity of dedicated wards and sometimes dedicated hospitals (Borgen et al.
Effect of mandating vaccination on COVID-19 cases in colleges and universitiesWith the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines, many colleges and universities decided to mandate vaccination for all students and employees. The objective of this paper is to empirically investigate the effect of the mandate policy on Fall 2021 COVID-19 cases in institutions of higher education.