Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
Baricitinib vs tocilizumab treatment for hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 and associated cytokine storm: a prospective, investigational, real-world studyThe ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has devastated countries. The race to find adequate therapies is ongoing, but significant progress has been made since 2019. Our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis revealed the need for targeting the dysregulated immune response. The term cytokine storm first appeared 30 years ago, describing a potentially life-threatening condition triggered by various pathogens, hematologic and immunological disorders, and is characterized by peripheral hyperactivation of T-lymphocytes, resulting in elevated cytokines levels, systemic inflammation, and end-organ damage (Chatenoud et al.
Pembrolizumab in combination with tocilizumab in high-risk hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (COPERNICO): A randomized proof-of-concept phase II studyThe rapid spread of an enveloped RNA betacoronavirus (2019) (Lu et al., 2020), SARS-CoV-2 (Guan et al., 2020), causing COVID-19, led to a global pandemic (declared by the World Health Organization [WHO] on March 11, 2020) (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020a), with more than 266 million cases and 5 million deaths worldwide (WHO, 2021).
The safety and effectiveness of tocilizumab in older adult critically ill patients with COVID-19: a multicenter, cohort studySince the novel severe acute respiratory sydnrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emergence in 2019 (Huang et al., 2020), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than four million deaths globally (World Health Organization, 2021). COVID-19 pneumonia can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan dysfunction, or death (Que et al., 2022). This progression may be attributed to the body's inflammatory response exacerbating inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, leading to cytokine storm (Que et al., 2022).
Treatment with Tocilizumab in Adult Patients with Moderate to Critical COVID‐19 Pneumonia: A Single‐Center Retrospective StudyThe ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a substantial death toll despite an incredible search for effective treatment regimens. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), especially that involving the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), plays a major role in mediating acute lung injury, leading to poor clinical outcomes (Xu et al., 2020; Mehta et al., 2020). The administration of corticosteroids has been proven to reduce mortality among patients requiring respiratory support (Fernandez-Ruiz et al., 2021, WHO, 2021 a).
Real World Long-term Assessment of The Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients with COVID-19: Results From A Large De-identified Multicenter Electronic Health Record Dataset in the United StatesSevere acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) was originally described in Wuhan, Hubei province. SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide, causing more than 600,000 deaths in the (United States) U.S. as of Aug 2021 (Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Dashboard). Severe COVID-19 is characterized by pneumonia, which may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure. Severe cases of COVID-19 leading to alveolar damage, respiratory failure, and ARDS seem to be associated with a pro-inflammatory state (cytokine storm), likely mediated by interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulator among others (Xu et al., 2020; Ye et al., 2020).
Combination therapy with tocilizumab and corticosteroids for aged patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia: A single-center retrospective studySevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a novel beta-coronavirus first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China (Huang et al., 2020). Most cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have a mild-to-moderate course, although a significant proportion of patients will ultimately develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (Wang et al., 2020), which carries a high mortality rate (Wu et al., 2020). Older age has been consistently identified as a risk factor for death and poor outcomes in COVID-19.
Tocilizumab treatment in critically ill patients with COVID-19: A retrospective observational studySince the advent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 (Zhou et al., 2020), the virus has spread to virtually every country in the world and now accounts for more than 29 million cases worldwide with 937 519 deaths https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ (accessed September 15). Despite efforts to develop vaccines and generate data from controlled clinical trials, the morbidity and mortality imposed by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia require the implementation of therapies that, based on logical deduction from known mechanisms of action and case reports, could be useful.
Effectiveness of anakinra for tocilizumab-refractory severe COVID-19: A single-centre retrospective comparative studyAs of January 2021, the worldwide outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible of the viral pneumonia known as COVID-19, has caused more than 94 million infections and 2 million deaths (Johns Hopkins University of Medicine, 2021). SARS-CoV-2 infection produces mild symptoms of respiratory tract infection in most individuals; however, a subgroup of patients with COVID-19 develop severe disease, with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or multiple organ dysfunction especially affecting the heart, liver and kidneys.
Tocilizumab in the treatment of critical COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated patientsThe spectrum of disease manifested by COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome with a high mortality rate (Guan et al., 2020). While the pathophysiology of COVID-19 remains a subject of ongoing investigation, it has been apparent since the early stages of the pandemic that elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 contribute to the development of more severe disease and confer a worse prognosis (Ruan et al., 2020; Chen et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2020).