Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
Effect of mandating vaccination on COVID-19 cases in colleges and universitiesWith the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines, many colleges and universities decided to mandate vaccination for all students and employees. The objective of this paper is to empirically investigate the effect of the mandate policy on Fall 2021 COVID-19 cases in institutions of higher education.
Humoral and cellular responses to spike of δ SARS-CoV-2 variant in vaccinated patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseasesThe World Health Organization (WHO) identified all the viral variants as variants of concern (VOC), with increased potential to spread or capacity to evade the natural or the vaccine-induced protection. The SARS-CoV-2 VOC are the α, β, γ, and δ variants (WHO, 2021); moreover, the omicron VOC has been recognized very recently (Viana et al., 2022). At the time of writing this report, the δ, with 41.4% of sequences identified (WHO, 2022), was still a high-spread VOC worldwide, and was associated with an exponential increase of infections and deaths (Cherian et al., 2021; Depres et al., 2021) owing to its capacity to infect individuals with a viral load up to 1000-fold compared with the original strain (Campbell et al., 2021).
Antibody responses after two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine in an individual with history of COVID-19 re-infectionSince December 2019, COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide (Hayakawa et al., 2020). As of January 25th, 2022, 544 re-infected COVID-19 cases have been reported worldwide (BNO news. 2022; Inada et al., 2021).
Effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines against severe illness in B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant–infected patients in Jiangsu, ChinaAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimation, as of January 5, 2022, the global cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has risen to more than 293 million and more than 5.4 million people have died from it (WHO 2021). There is no doubt that vaccination is a vital measure to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Different COVID-19 vaccines, including inactivated, adenovirus vector, and messenger RNA vaccines, have been authorized or are in the laboratory development and clinical utility evaluation stage (Folegatti et al. 2020, Jara et al. 2021, Kandeil et al. 2021, Polack et al. 2020).
Heart failure secondary to myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 reinfection: a case reportCardiac involvement in COVID-19 can range from mild damage to severe myocarditis. SARS-CoV-2 binds with high affinity to human angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2 (ACE 2), which is expressed in the entire body, including the heart. Severe systemic manifestations, such as myocarditis, have been reported in association with COVID-19 (Kerneis et al., 2021; Hamming et al., 2004). Some COVID-19 patients have persistent tachycardia, sustained asymptomatic hypotension, and bradycardia (Huang et al., 2020).
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss after COVID-19 vaccinationCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly and was declared a pandemic (Kilic et al., 2020, Iftikhar et al., 2021). At present, more than 200 million people worldwide have been infected, among whom more than four million have died. In this situation, vaccination for COVID-19 is important and is being prompted in many countries.
COVID-19 pandemic: lessons learned from more than a century of pandemics and current vaccine development for pandemic controlSince the 1980s, at least 30 new infectious disease threats have emerged (Mukherjee, 2017). Of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) identified since 1940, 60% were zoonotic in nature, of which 70% originated in wildlife (Jones et al., 2008). This trend is expected to rise because of increased human–animal contact, climate change, land use changes, global population growth, and increased global interconnectedness (Jones et al., 2008, Mukherjee, 2017, Petersen et al., 2018).
Reduction in COVID-19 prevalence in healthcare workers in a university hospital in southern Brazil after the start of vaccinationThere is evidence that vaccines are able to reduce infection and the number of more severe cases of COVID-19 (Bradley et al., 2021; Keehner et al., 2021; Daniel et al., 2021; Benenson et al., 2021). The P1 variant of SARS-CoV-2 is refractory to multiple neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (Wang et al., 2021). This may lead to antigen alterations that impair vaccine protection, leading to a diagnosis of infection in individuals in whom vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (Wang et al., 2021).