Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
Outcomes of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during resurgence driven by Omicron lineages BA.4 and BA.5 compared with previous waves in the Western Cape Province, South AfricaThe Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern has been dominant globally since November 2021, with several sublineages causing surges in infections (Iketani et al., 2022; Tegally et al., 2022; Viana et al., 2022). South Africa experienced an initial large BA.1 infection surge from November 2021 to January 2022. BA.1 was then replaced by BA.2 but with no increase in cases numbers, and this was followed by a BA.4/BA.5 infection surge between April and June 2022 (Tegally et al., 2022; Viana et al., 2022).
Open-label phase I/II clinical trial of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (FINLAY-FR-2) in combination with receptor binding domain-protein vaccine (FINLAY-FR-1A) in childrenProtecting children against COVID-19 is pivotal for controlling virus dissemination and reducing disease incidence. COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations among children and adolescents, firstly driven by the Delta variant and recently by Omicron, have risen sharply, even in countries with high adult vaccination coverage (Delahoy et al., 2021; Elliott et al., 2022). This context has accelerated the clinical trials of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for children (Ali et al., 2021; Frenck et al., 2021; Han et al., 2021; Wallace et al., 2021; Walter et al., 2021; Xia et al., 2022).
Anakinra or high-dose corticosteroids in COVID-19 pneumonia patients who deteriorate on low-dose dexamethasone: an observational study of comparative effectivenessSome patients with COVID-19 pneumonia display clinical and laboratory signs of a hyperinflammatory response, including markedly elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels, followed by rapid respiratory status decompensation and progression to multisystem organ failure. These observations led to the use of varying doses of corticosteroids and targeted anti-cytokine agents, including anakinra, an anti-interleukin (IL)-1 treatment, early in the pandemic.
COVID-19 and diarrhea: putative mechanisms and managementSince December 2019, COVID-19 has become a global threat to public health and the economy. The main causative agent of this disease, SARS-CoV-2, first appeared in Wuhan city of China and the World Health Organization declared it a global pandemic on March 2020 (Huang et al., 2020). Along with a great toll on economic growth and interruption of the general lifestyle of people, COVID-19 has become one of the major public health crises infecting around 533 million people till June 12, 2022, taking more than 6.3 million lives reported from 226 countries (World Health Organization, 2022).
Reduction in severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients owing to heterologous third and fourth-dose vaccines during the periods of delta and omicron predominance in ThailandAs of July 30, 2022, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to more than 582 million confirmed cases globally with more than 170 million in Asia and almost 5 million in Thailand alone (Mathieu et al., 2022). This has unfortunately resulted in almost 6.4 million deaths worldwide, 1.5 million deaths across Asia, and over 31,000 deaths in Thailand (Mathieu et al., 2022). While public health measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and appropriate hygiene measures were able to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the rapid development and deployment of vaccines were responsible for reducing the clinical impact of COVID-19 substantially (Doroshenko, 2021; Moore et al.
Comparative analysis of elderly hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or influenza A H1N1 virus infectionsThe SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and influenza A viruses are major pathogens that damage the respiratory system and can produce outbreaks of SARS, MERS, COVID‐19, and influenza A H1N1 virus pneumonia, respectively. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus are from the same genus and share many virological and epidemiological similarities. However, COVID-19 shows more similarities with influenza A H1N1 virus infections in the pattern and scale of spread than with SARS or MERS.
A large series of molecular and serological specimens to evaluate mother-to-child SARS-CoV-2 transmission: a prospective study from the Italian Obstetric Surveillance SystemThe ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is characterized by multiple epidemic waves associated with different viral strains with diverse transmissibility and lethality. The previous highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-1 and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus were associated with poor obstetric outcomes (Schwartz and Graham, 2020). Given the importance of understanding COVID-19’s impact on pregnant women, fetuses, and newborns, the Italian Obstetric Surveillance System (ItOSS), coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health-ISS), launched a nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study aimed at analyzing cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women with the purpose to provide useful indications to guide decision makers and support clinical practice (Donati et al.
High prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pregnant women after the second wave of infections in the inner-city of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South AfricaIn South Africa, by the end of the second COVID-19 wave in early February 2021, which driven largely by the Beta variant (501Y.V2), almost 1.5 million COVID-19 cases and 47,000 deaths were recorded (National Institute for Communicable Diseases [NICD], 2021). By the end of September 2021, as South Africa exited the third wave, which was dominated by the Delta variant, just over 2.9 million diagnosed cases and more than 87,000 COVID-19-related deaths were reported (NDoH, 2021). Of these, more than one-third of cases and a quarter of deaths were from the Gauteng Province, the most densely populated province in South Africa, with the City of Johannesburg accounting for almost one-third of diagnosed cases (NDoH, 2021, NICD, 2021).
SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Malaysia: displacement of B.1.617.2 with AY lineages as the dominant Delta variants and the introduction of Omicron during the fourth epidemic waveSince the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, COVID-19 continues to be an important health problem worldwide (Gao et al., 2021). The index case of COVID-19 was detected on December 1, 2019, in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China (Helmy et al., 2020; Valencia, 2020). As of January 2022, there were 380 million COVID-19 cases, with a mortality rate of 1.5% (Worldometer, 2022). COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped, nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA β-coronavirus (Zhou et al.
Clinical outcomes associated with Mu variant infection during the third epidemic peak of COVID-19 in ColombiaBy July 2022, four COVID-19 epidemic peaks and 210 lineages have been registered in Colombia, including several variants of interest and concern (INS, 2022). However, a higher number of cases and deaths occurred during the third epidemic peak, when the B.1.621 (Mu) variant was associated with 50% of the cases in the country (Álvarez-Díaz et al., 2022a). Although several factors in the clinical history of patients with COVID-19 have been associated with a severe or fatal outcome, including comorbidities, age, and smoking history (Zhang et al.
Baricitinib vs tocilizumab treatment for hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 and associated cytokine storm: a prospective, investigational, real-world studyThe ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has devastated countries. The race to find adequate therapies is ongoing, but significant progress has been made since 2019. Our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis revealed the need for targeting the dysregulated immune response. The term cytokine storm first appeared 30 years ago, describing a potentially life-threatening condition triggered by various pathogens, hematologic and immunological disorders, and is characterized by peripheral hyperactivation of T-lymphocytes, resulting in elevated cytokines levels, systemic inflammation, and end-organ damage (Chatenoud et al.
High-dose corticosteroids in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia: an observational study of comparative effectivenessThe optimal dose of corticosteroids in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncertain, particularly among patients with severe respiratory impairment (The WHO Rapid Evidence Appraisal for COVID-19 Therapies [REACT] Working Group, 2020), and practice remains varied. Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared high (12 mg) to low (6 mg) doses of dexamethasone in patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 pneumonia found no difference in mortality (Bouadma et al., 2022) or were inconclusive (COVID STEROID 2 Trial Group et al.
Enhanced vitamin K expenditure as a major contributor to vitamin K deficiency in COVID-19In December 2019, the acute respiratory disease COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), made its appearance in Wuhan, China (Huang et al., 2020). Several studies trying to clarify the COVID-19 pathogenesis or investigating different remedies have been conducted and reviewed (Oliaei et al., 2021; SeyedAlinaghi et al., 2021); however, the need to elucidate the disease pathways of this poignant disease remains. Severe vitamin K deficiency has been demonstrated in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and consistently been associated with worse clinical outcome (Desai et al.
Workup of cerebral involvement in patients with COVID-19 – authors’ replyWe thank Scorza et al. for their comments on our article (Chen et al., 2022) discussing the new S protein mutation of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential effects on immune regulation, associated with the apparent increase in the incidence of severe neurological symptoms in Taiwanese pediatric patients.
Workup for cerebral involvement in COVID-19 requires cerebral imaging, electroencephalography, and cerebrospinal fluid studiesWe read with interest the article by Chen et al. (2022) concerning five pediatric patients with severe neurological complications of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. It was concluded that a new mutation in the spike protein of the Omicron BA.2.3.7 variant may be responsible for the sudden increase in neurological complications of COVID-19 (Chen et al., 2022). The study is appealing but raises concerns.
Effect of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19: a Bayesian network meta-analysisAs of August 5, 2022, nearly 600 million persons have been diagnosed with COVID-19, and more than 6 million individuals have died because of this disease (World Health Organization, 2022). Evidence has shown that a severely dysregulated immune response plays a critical role in patients with COVID-19 (Prete et al., 2020; Vabret et al., 2020).
Testing for COVID-19 during an outbreak within a large UK prison: an evaluation of mass testing to inform outbreak controlSince the first cases were identified in 2019, COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic which has disrupted economies and caused significant morbidity and mortality. With COVID-19 predominantly spread through aerosols and those in close contact at the highest risk, concern was voiced that institutions such as prisons would be at risk of large outbreaks (Burki, 2020), exacerbated by overcrowding and poor health of imprisoned people (Davies et al., 2020; Fazel et al., 2001). Coupled with difficulties implementing basic infection prevention and control measures because of limited access to handwashing points, crowded conditions, little control over social distancing, and movement of both staff and people, it was expected that prisons would become a hotspot for COVID-19 outbreaks (Burki, 2020).
Immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysisThe transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. By August 19, 2022, more than 590 million have had confirmed COVID-19 and more than 6 million have died worldwide (World Health Organization, 2022). The morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and its complications and large-scale economic disruption have prompted an unprecedented pace in highly efficacious vaccine development (Berlin et al., 2020; Merad et al., 2022). As of August 19, 2022, a total of 12.4 billion vaccine doses have been administered (World Health Organization, 2022), and the most widely used are messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines, including BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech, New York, NY, USA-Mainz, Germany) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA) vaccines and viral vector vaccines, such as Ad26.CoV2.S (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ, USA), ChAdOx (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK), Sputnik V (Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia), and the traditional inactivated virus alum-adjuvanted candidate vaccine CoronaVac (Sinovac, Beijing, China) (Piccaluga et al.
Effects of COVID-19-targeted nonpharmaceutical interventions on children's respiratory admissions in China: a national multicenter time series studyCOVID-19 has exerted a profound influence on everyday life and the healthcare system worldwide. Since the outburst of COVID-19 in Wuhan city, China, in January 2020, a series of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been conducted nationwide. The NPIs refer to the combination of mask-wearing, handwashing, and social distancing, such as closing schools and public places, quarantining infected patients and close contacts, and travel restrictions (Fricke et al., 2021; Zhang et al., 2021a). These measures have effectively curbed the large-scale spread of the epidemic, keeping the number of people infected with COVID-19 in China under control (Tang and Abbasi, 2021).
Change in effectiveness of sotrovimab for preventing hospitalization and mortality for at-risk COVID-19 outpatients during an Omicron BA.1 and BA.1.1-predominant phaseWith fluctuating rates of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) products such as sotrovimab for outpatients who have recently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 have been critical, evidence-based treatments to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 surges on the health care system and improve COVID-19 outcomes among high-risk individuals (Aggarwal et al., 2022; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021; Ganesh et al., 2021; Huang et al., 2022; Jarrett et al., 2021; O'Horo et al.
Effectiveness of messenger RNA vaccines against infection with SARS-CoV-2 during the periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance in Japan: the Vaccine Effectiveness, Networking, and Universal Safety (VENUS) studyVaccination against infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the general population of Japan began on April 12, 2021, and booster vaccination (the third dose) began on December 1, 2021. The Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant was gradually replaced by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant beginning in June 2021, and the Delta variant accounted for approximately 80% of infections in Japan in August 2021 (National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 2021). The Delta variant predominated until the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant surged in January 2022 (National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 2022; Ode et al.
Characteristics of long-COVID among older adults: a cross-sectional studyLong-COVID has been reported to affect a substantial portion of survivors of COVID-19, including those who experienced mild acute disease (Carter et al., 2022; Chen et al., 2022; Yan et al., 2021). In many of the cases, the affected individuals experience debilitating symptoms that affect their physical and cognitive function, impairing their quality of life. Recent longer-term follow-up studies show that many individuals do not experience full recovery even 1 year after infection (PHOSP-COVID Collaborative Group, 2022; Zhang et al.
Effect of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccination to Prevent COVID-19 in Thai Households (VacPrevent trial)COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection and caused the pandemic with high mortality. Household transmission is the most common transmission source in the countries with COVID-19 outbreaks (Pollán et al., 2020). In England, the secondary infection rate is 4-6.4 per 100 households (Hall et al., 2021). The secondary attack rate (SAR) in other countries is 16.3-53% (Grijalva et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020; Singanayagam et al., 2022). The systematic review demonstrated an average of 17% secondary infections (4-45%), and the SAR was 31.1% during the B.1.617.2 outbreak, whereas the high transmissibility in Thai households was 56% (Madewell et al.
Effectiveness of the neutralizing antibody sotrovimab among high-risk patients with mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 in QatarSeveral monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for the treatment of COVID-19 (Miguez-Rey et al., 2022). One of these is sotrovimab, which significantly reduced the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and death due to infection with pre-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in a randomized clinical trial (Gupta et al., 2021). The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency authorization to permit the use of sotrovimab for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in patients at high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 (US Food and Drug Administration, 2022).
Non-severe COVID-19 complicated by cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion): a case report and literature reviewCoronavirus disease 2019- (COVID-19-) associated cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) have been reported as a rare neurological abnormality in severe cases. Here, a case of CLOCCs in the early stages of mild COVID-19 infection during the Omicron BA.1 epidemic is reported along with a literature review.