Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
Post-acute symptoms 3-15 months after COVID-19 among unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals with a breakthrough infectionVaccination represents the most important strategy to prevent infection, severe complications, and death caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Feikin et al., 2022). SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may also reduce the risk of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) (Antonelli et al., 2022; Azzolini et al., 2022; Kuodi et al., 2022), but conflicting results have been presented (Taquet et al., 2022). We aimed to describe self-reported PASC symptoms, including memory and concentration problems, changes in smell and taste, fatigue, and dyspnea, persisting 3-15 months after a positive test in SARS-CoV-2 unvaccinated and vaccinated participants with a breakthrough infection.
Immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysisThe transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. By August 19, 2022, more than 590 million have had confirmed COVID-19 and more than 6 million have died worldwide (World Health Organization, 2022). The morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and its complications and large-scale economic disruption have prompted an unprecedented pace in highly efficacious vaccine development (Berlin et al., 2020; Merad et al., 2022). As of August 19, 2022, a total of 12.4 billion vaccine doses have been administered (World Health Organization, 2022), and the most widely used are messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines, including BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech, New York, NY, USA-Mainz, Germany) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA) vaccines and viral vector vaccines, such as Ad26.CoV2.S (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ, USA), ChAdOx (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK), Sputnik V (Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russia), and the traditional inactivated virus alum-adjuvanted candidate vaccine CoronaVac (Sinovac, Beijing, China) (Piccaluga et al.
Interleukin-6 affects the severity of olfactory disorder: a cross-sectional survey of 148 patients who recovered from Omicron infection using the Sniffin’ Sticks test in Tianjin, ChinaThe worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has continued for approximately 3 years, imposing severe burdens on global healthcare systems and economic stability. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever and cough (Guan et al., 2020). In addition, an increasing number of studies have found that olfactory disorder (OD), which includes anosmia and hyposmia, is one of the most common clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and may be the first or only symptom in a patient (Eliezer et al., 2020; Heidari et al., 2020). OD occurs in 33-80% of patients with COVID-19 (Mao et al.
Epidemiological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 reinfectionCOVID-19 began as an outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020 (WHO, 2020). The disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has affected >271,900,000 people worldwide and led to >5,000,000 deaths as of December 19, 2021 (WHO, 2021c). There are currently five SARS-CoV-2 variants that are classified as variants of concern: Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and more recently, Omicron (B.1.1.529) (WHO, 2021b).
SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection Rate and Outcomes in Saudi Arabia: A National Retrospective StudyThe emergence of SARS-CoV-2, a virus that causes COVID-19, has infected over 430 million people worldwide (743,205 in Saudi Arabia) and resulted in over 6 million deaths (8993 in Saudi Arabia) as of February 25, 2022. Despite implementing stringent control measures and travel restrictions, COVID-19 continues to circulate globally, and more recently, the resurgence of COVID-19 cases has been observed after the relaxation of lockdown and social distancing procedures as well as the emergence of variants that posed an increased risk to global public health (Tillett et al., 2021).
Rule out appropriately all differentials before attributing severe rhabdomyolysis to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinationWe read with interest the article by Kamura et al. about a 57-year-old, previously healthy male patient, who presented with leg pain 2 weeks after the first dose of the Moderna vaccine (Kamura et al., 2022). Four weeks after the vaccination, he was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis upon the clinical presentation (muscle pain), elevated creatine-kinase (maximal value 74,804 U/l [n, 60-287 U/l]), and the muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Kamura et al., 2022). During the following course, the patient additionally developed multiorgan infarctions and, finally, died despite intensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches (Kamura et al., 2022).
Monitoring the COVID-19 immune landscape in JapanSince the COVID-19 epidemic spread on a global scale in 2020, it considerably altered daily life. With the hope of mitigating the COVID-19 risk, vaccination campaigns began in December 2020 in many countries, often using a prioritization vaccination strategy (Haas et al., 2021; Hall et al., 2021; Jentsch et al., 2021; Mathieu et al., 2021; Sasanami et al., 2022; Thompson et al., 2021). Mass vaccination campaigns occurred primarily when the original (wild-type) strain, the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7), the Beta variant (B.1.351), or other variants were dominant in circulation and against which the available vaccines provided substantial protection (Chemaitelly et al., 2021; Chung et al., 2021; Dagan et al., 2021; Haas et al., 2021; Hall et al., 2021; Pritchard et al., 2021).
Real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination among children in ItalyIn this study, we analyzed the clinical efficacy of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines among Italian children aged 5 to 11 years, using data published by the National Institute of Health. Vaccination status was associated with a reduced risk of COVID-19–related hospitalizations and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, which were 41% (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.77) and 68% (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.04-2.63), respectively, lower in children who completed the vaccination cycle <120 days than in the unvaccinated matched population.
Public acceptability of COVID-19 control measures in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Malaysia: A cross-sectional surveyOur findings highlight the importance of sociopolitical context in public perception of public health measures and emphasize the need to continually monitor public attitudes toward such measures to inform implementation and communication strategies.
Independent risk factors of COVID-19 pneumonia in vaccinated Mexican adultsThe availability of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represent a significant step toward ending the pandemic, and most COVID-19 vaccines confer close to 100% reduction in the risk of serious illness or death (Sharma et al. 2021). In Mexico, vaccination of the general population started in mid-February 2021, and by June 2021, 7 COVID-19 vaccines have received approval by health authorities for their application in Mexico: BNT162b2 (Pfizer, Inc./BioNTech), AZD1222 Covishield (AstraZeneca), Gam-COVID-Vac (National Center Gamaleya), CoronaVac (Sinovac Research and Development Co.), Ad5-nCoV Covidecia (CanSino Biologics Inc.), BBV152 Covaxin (Bharat Biotech International Limited), and Ad26.COV2-S (Janssen-Cilag).
Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among previously infected or vaccinated employeesPrior reports have found lower rates of SARS-CoV-2 infections among those vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 or with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (Dagan et al., 2021; Qureshi et al., 2021). Although an association between vaccination and reduction of SARS-CoV-2 incidence has been well described, it remains unclear how the incidence among individuals with a previous infection compares to vaccinated individuals.
SARS-CoV-2 transmission in opposition-controlled Northwest Syria: modeling pandemic responses during political conflictTen years into Syria's protracted and violent conflict, more than half of the 22 million prewar population has been displaced and more than half a million civilians have been killed, including more than 900 health workers (UNOCHA, 2020; Fouad et al., 2017). The conflict has decimated the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure, and public health infrastructure crucial for managing infectious diseases. Northwest Syria (NWS), a 2,460 square-kilometer territory bordered by Turkiye on one side and government-controlled areas on the other, has an estimated population of 4.2 million.
Constrictive pericarditis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: A case reportCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a wide range of cardiovascular complications such as myocarditis, heart failure, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism (Chang et al., 2021). Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been widely adopted to prevent the spread of COVID-19, vaccine-associated cardiovascular complications, such as myocarditis and pericarditis, have been reported (Bozkurt et al., 2021; Pepe et al., 2021).
Critical timing and extent of public health interventions to control outbreaks dominated by SARS-CoV-2 variants in Australia: a mathematical modelling studyThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause a catastrophic health and economic crisis around the world (McKee and Stuckler, 2020; World Health Organization, 2021). To prevent the consequences of the COVID-19 epidemic, 22 vaccine candidates have been approved by the World Health Organization (Craven, 2021). Yet, achieving global herd immunity with these vaccines will take time, given the existing disparity in COVID-19 vaccination across the globe (Forman et al., 2021). Non-pharmaceutical interventions remain the most effective means for COVID-19 control until herd immunity can be achieved.
Pityriasis Rosea Shortly After mRNA-1273 COVID-19 VaccinationWith the increase in rates of vaccination against COVID-19, various cutaneous reactions have been reported after vaccination, including pityriasis rosea (PR) (Catala et al., 2021; Johansen et al., 2021; Marcantonio-Santa Cruz et al., 2021; McMahon et al., 2021). It is easy to overlook because the incidence of PR as a side effect of COVID-19 vaccination is extremely low, accounting for about 0.96% of all cutaneous reactions (McMahon et al., 2021).
Antibody response to the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among healthcare workers, IndonesiaHealthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to increased occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 (Nguyen et al., 2020). As well as being beneficial for the HCWs themselves, protecting HCWs from SARS-CoV-2 infection is important to prevent disease transmission in healthcare and community settings (Anonymous, 2020). In addition, protecting HCWs from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucial for the preservation and protection of national healthcare systems (Anonymous, 2020).
Hypersensitivity reaction to hyaluronic acid dermal filler after the Pfizer vaccination against SARS-CoV-2The novel coronovirus (2019-nCoV), named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)has infected approximately 250 million people worldwide killed more than 3.7 million individuals (n.d.). The rapid spreading of the pandemia has stimulated the implementation of numerous measures to combat the spread of the virus, such as closures of geographical areas, lockdowns, restrictions on the circulation of citizens and closure of various types of activities and businesses (Galanakis, 2020).
Comparison of an inactivated Covid19 vaccine-induced antibody response with concurrent natural Covid19 infectionThe devastating effect of SARS-CoV-2 is still ongoing around the globe (WHO, 2019). Virus-infected patients are either asymptomatic or have the disease, with clinical course ranging from mild to severe (Yang et al. 2020). HCWs have a higher risk of encountering SARS-CoV-2. The higher risk comes from likely contact with patients carrying high viral loads and virus-infected stuff in the hospitals. Infection rates rise up to 14% in symptomatic and 7.1% in asymptomatic HCWs. These rates are higher than the general population reported so far and suggest an occupational risk (Shields et al. 2020).
Post-vaccination cases of COVID-19 among healthcare workers at Siloam Teaching Hospital, IndonesiaCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread worldwide. Indonesia reported its first case of COVID-19 on 2 March 2020, and reached more than 1 million cases by February 2021 (World Health Organization, 2021). Among the countries in south-east Asia, Indonesia has the most active COVID-19 cases (Dong et al., 2020), and the nation’s case fatality rate was higher than the global average (2.7% vs 2.2%) at the end of February 2021 (Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2021).
COVID-19: Is herd immunity the only option for fragile Yemen?The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has renewed the debate on herd immunity. Although the concept seems plausible in an ideal setting, achieving this would possibly require intentional sacrifice of a section of the herd, not only in terms of loss of life but also in terms of long-term pain and suffering. For example, there have been suggestions that up to 2 million people would die before getting there in the USA alone (Aschwanden, 2020). Although commentators in the Lancet have concluded that “any proposed approach to achieve herd immunity through natural infection is not only highly unethical, but also unachievable”, it could be the only option for certain resource-poor and fragile nations (Jones and Helmreich, 2020).
The potential significance of high avidity immunoglobulin G (IgG) for protective immunity towards SARS-CoV-2The avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is determined by its affinity and denotes the strength of binding to its target epitope. High avidity is reached after affinity/avidity maturation and reflects the best fit between IgG and epitope. Avidity of IgG is low during acute infection and reaches high values several weeks or months later (Hedman et al., 1997; Bauer, 2021). Memory B cells express and utilize high avidity IgG to establish effective anamnestic responses (Eisen, 2014).