Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
- Since December 2020, a number of different types of COVID-19 vaccines have been developed to limit the spread of the pandemic [Jedlowski et al., 2021]. Although there have been reported side effects and adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccines, they are still considered safe as the benefits of halting the spread of the virus and reducing the severity of COVID-19 infection outweigh the risks. Skin rash and reactions have been reported as possible side effects associated with different types of COVID-19 vaccines.
- With the increase in rates of vaccination against COVID-19, various cutaneous reactions have been reported after vaccination, including pityriasis rosea (PR) (Catala et al., 2021; Johansen et al., 2021; Marcantonio-Santa Cruz et al., 2021; McMahon et al., 2021). It is easy to overlook because the incidence of PR as a side effect of COVID-19 vaccination is extremely low, accounting for about 0.96% of all cutaneous reactions (McMahon et al., 2021).
- COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is rapidly spreading worldwide and has become a threat to humankind. Respiratory infectious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are transmitted via contact and droplets and have a high secondary attack rate ranging from 3.0%–11.2% in households (Wiersinga et al., 2020). Diagnosis of respiratory infectious virus is performed by collecting specimens from the surface of the respiratory mucosa using nasopharyngeal swabs (Föh et al., 2020; Marty et al., 2020). However, it is a high-risk procedure for healthcare workers because it causes pharyngeal reflexes or sneezing.
- A 36-year-old man with moderate-to-severe left neck pain, local swelling, and tenderness was seen at the emergency room. Over the prior 4 days he had received beta-lactam antibiotic therapy with no improvement. One month before he experienced mild symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The PCR-based test performed at the emergency room was still positive. The remaining personal history was negative. The routine laboratory parameters were within reference range and autoimmunity screening results were negative (Table 1).
- A 49-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in late March 2020, 6 days after onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). He received remdesivir in a clinical study. Oxygen supplementation was not required. Defervescence occurred 12 days after onset, and he was discharged 21 days after symptom onset. In mid-May 2020, he noticed alopecia on his head. He started taking self-imported minoxidil 5 mg/day and finasteride 1 mg/day in June 2020, and was still taking these medications at the time of writing.
- For more than a year, health systems all over the world have been combating the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first described in the city of Wuhan in China, presenting as an atypical infection of the lower respiratory tract.
- A 77-year-old man was admitted for severe PCR-confirmed COVID-19. The patient presented with severe hypoxemia and biological findings suggestive of a hyperinflammatory syndrome: severe lymphopenia in combination with signs of hypercytokinemia (elevated C-reactive protein), coagulopathy (elevated D-dimer levels), and hepatic injury (elevated lactate dehydrogenase) (Webb et al., 2020).
- A 55-year-old male with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and pre-hypertension tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after presenting with fever, headache, body aches, and cough. Symptoms lasted for 10 days. A dilated fundus examination, 3 weeks after the onset of symptoms, revealed cotton wool spots (CWS) in both eyes with superficial flame-shaped hemorrhage in the right eye (Figure 1). Fluorescein angiography exhibited normal arterial and venous filling without capillary dropouts or signs of retinopathy.
- A 96-year-old woman living in a nursing home was admitted to the university hospital Erlangen due to an infection with SARS-CoV-2. She presented with fever, coughing and reduced general condition. Under symptomatic therapy, the patient's condition improved. After 2 weeks, she developed fever again, and her urine turned purple (Figure 1).