Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
- Since the COVID-19 pandemic appearance, a global effort has been made to develop effective vaccines to stem SARS-CoV-2 infection through the induction of a coordinated B and T cell immune response (Agrati et al., 2021; Aiello et al., 2022a; Sette and Crotty, 2021, 2022). Humoral immunity consists of antibodies binding the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein that neutralizes the virus, whereas cellular immunity includes virus-specific B and T cells, which provide long-term memory and promptly expand following re-exposure to antigens (Sette and Crotty, 2021, 2022).
- Neurological symptoms of COVID-19 are highly frequent and disabling (Wan et al., 2021). Severe neurological disorders such as encephalitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and vascular events have been described in anecdotal reports or in case series. Here, we describe the first case of a female patient infected with the SARS-CoV-2 BA.2 Omicron variant of concern (VoC) meningitis with newly diagnosed central demyelinating disease.
- Patients with pre-existing comorbidities and immunosuppression, including anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, widely used to treat hematological malignancies or autoimmune disease, are at greater risk for persistent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (He et al., 2020). Prolonged B-cell depletion impairs the adaptive immune response and the ability to produce neutralizing antibodies, causing severe manifestations and a prolonged course of COVID-19 (Mehta et al., 2020; Hueso et al., 2020).
- The emergence and rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health emergency and one of our century's greatest challenges. As of February 24, 2021, approximately 111 million confirmed cases and more than 2.4 million deaths had been reported worldwide (Anon, 2020).
- In patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, excessive inflammatory responses are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) disease, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple-organ failure (Moore and June, 2020). Dysregulated inflammatory profile, defective immune responses and lymphopenia have also been identified as important features of severe disease (Del Valle et al., 2020; Bordoni et al., 2020).