Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
- Humoral and cell-mediated responses are both necessary to control SARS-CoV-2 infection (Sette and Crotty, 2021) and to monitor the immune protection induced by the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in the population (Agrati et al., 2021; Aiello et al., 2021; Farroni et al., 2022; Goletti et al., 2021; Petrone et al., 2021b; Picchianti-Diamanti et al., 2021; Tortorella et al., 2022).
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterized by a huge range of clinical manifestations. Many pathogenetic pathways and virulence mechanisms are still unknown. Nevertheless, it is known that the host’s immune system plays a key role (Blanco-Melo et al., 2020). Notably, age, comorbidities (e.g. diabetes mellitus, obesity), smoking habits and male sex (Rod et al., 2020; Wu et al., 2020) are the fundamental independent risk factors for death from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) (Zhou et al., 2020).
- The emergence and rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health emergency and one of our century's greatest challenges. As of February 24, 2021, approximately 111 million confirmed cases and more than 2.4 million deaths had been reported worldwide (Anon, 2020).
- In December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the etiologic agent of the COronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak occurring in Wuhan, China (Zhu et al., 2020). The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is wide, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe disease and death. Pro-inflammatory factors play a central role in COVID-19 severity and mortality, inducing an excessive inflammatory and immune response, leading to acute respiratory distress (ARDS) and multi-organ failure (MOF) (Zhou et al., 2020).