Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
- The SARS-CoV-2 discovered at the end of 2019 quickly turned into a global pandemic. About one year later, highly effective vaccines have been introduced, and large-scale immunization campaigns are aimed at attenuating disease severity and preventing hospital admission. However, variants emerge with immune escape by changing domain in the spike (S) protein to which neutralizing antibodies bind (Willett et al., 2022). As such, vaccine effectiveness remains challenging. Therefore, the development and deployment of effective SARS-CoV-2 antiviral treatment are critical in combating the pandemic.
- The highly transmissible and pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has so far infected about 237 million people worldwide, leading to more than 4.8 million deaths within a period of 22 months. In Thailand, approximately 1.7 million cases and over 17 000 deaths have been confirmed at the time of writing (WHO COVID-19 Dashboard). The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on global public health and economies, calling for a deeper understanding of immune correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 that may be vital for the implementation of mitigation strategies and development of treatments and vaccines.
- The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, arising from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in more than 190 million confirmed cases and more than 4.0 million deaths (WHO, 2021). Survivors with COVID-19 are frequently reported to have persistent symptoms, and pulmonary function and psychological problems. It is challenging and necessary to evaluate the long-term sequelae of COVID-19.
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), emerged in late 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide, causing a global pandemic (Lipsitch et al., 2020). Despite many insights on the virus, data regarding the long-term immune response are quite scarce (Huang et al., 2020), although this issue is of high clinical relevance.
- The BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine is known to induce a rapid production of neutralizing antibodies (Lustig et al., 2021; Vicenti et al., 2021b); however, there are very limited data on their long-term kinetics. Favresse et al. (2021b) described a robust humoral response 90 days after the first dose of vaccine both in previously seropositive and seronegative subjects, but a significant antibody decrease in respect to the higher level reached occurred within this period. Interestingly, the administration of a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, about two months from the second dose, to solid-organ transplant recipients significantly improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine (Kamar et al., 2021).
- During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients with humoral immunodeficiency are at higher risk of developing chronic infection and having a negative outcome. Few data are available on therapeutic options for this population. This case report discusses the treatment of disease relapse with remdesivir and monoclonal antibodies in an adult patient with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia.
- There are many antibody assays currently in use to determine IgG, IgM, and IgA specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Algaissi et al., 2020; Sun et al., 2020; Vogelzang et al., 2020). While some of these assays measure total antibodies to mainly the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD), others measure IgM or IgG responses to S1, S2, or the nucleocapsid protein (Sun et al., 2020; Vogelzang et al., 2020).