Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
- The current pandemic of COVID-19 infections has led to successive waves, depending on several factors such as host immunity and the viral variant of the SARS-CoV-2 (Hu et al., 2021; Rahman et al., 2021). The main target of the virus is the pulmonary tract, potentially leading to respiratory failure, especially in elderly patients and/or those with multiple comorbid conditions (McCullough et al., 2021). The combination of a huge number of cases and the limited hospital resources, especially in terms of intensive care units (ICUs), led to the necessity of dedicated wards and sometimes dedicated hospitals (Borgen et al.
- In the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it has been important to identify features of clinical presentation that would serve as indicators of disease progression. There were 21 813 451 diagnosed cases of SARS-CoV-2 throughout the world as of August 16, 2020, with 5 564 376 of those cases in the United States (COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic, 2020). As of April 26, 2021 there were 148,442,514 cases worldwide, with the numbers continuing to rise. There have been times throughout the pandemic when we have been faced with limited resources with regard to remdisivir and convalescent plasma — treatment options that have shown potential to be beneficial (Grein et al., 2020; Joyner et al., 2020).
- Repurposing of available drugs for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gained interest due to the scarcity of drugs proven to be useful in these patients. Dexamethasone, statins, metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and renin–angiotensin system inhibitors have shown clinical benefits for severe and critically ill patients, especially those who are mechanically ventilated (Castiglione et al., 2020; Lim and Pranata, 2020a; Lukito et al., 2020; Pranata et al., 2020c; Rakhmat et al., 2021).
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. The disease caused by this virus later became known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (World Health Organization, 2020a). Most reports have indicated that children and adolescents comprise a small proportion of confirmed cases, and that these populations are less likely to be severely affected than adults (Castagnoli et al., 2020; Dong et al., 2020a; Ludvigsson, 2020; Rodriguez-Morales et al., 2020).
- In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections developed in Wuhan, China, and subsequently spread throughout the world. Several risk factors or predictors of disease severity have been reported, and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been correlated with various immunological abnormalities, cytokine release, and coagulation cascade. An important step towards avoiding increasing numbers of COVID-19-related deaths is early and simple detection of high-risk groups.
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a novel beta-coronavirus first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China (Huang et al., 2020). Most cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have a mild-to-moderate course, although a significant proportion of patients will ultimately develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (Wang et al., 2020), which carries a high mortality rate (Wu et al., 2020). Older age has been consistently identified as a risk factor for death and poor outcomes in COVID-19.
- As of January 2021, the worldwide outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible of the viral pneumonia known as COVID-19, has caused more than 94 million infections and 2 million deaths (Johns Hopkins University of Medicine, 2021). SARS-CoV-2 infection produces mild symptoms of respiratory tract infection in most individuals; however, a subgroup of patients with COVID-19 develop severe disease, with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or multiple organ dysfunction especially affecting the heart, liver and kidneys.
- Children tend to have mild COVID-19 and less mortality compared to adults (Chan et al., 2020). There is limited literature on the epidemiology and effect of COVID-19 in children from Middle Eastern countries. COVID-19 was reported in Oman for the first time on the 24 February 2020 (WHO, 2020a). From the 1 February to 31 July 2020, there were 68 400 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Oman of whom 4379 (6.6%) were children (WHO, 2020a). This study describes the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcome of children hospitalized with COVID-19 in Oman.
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, named SARS-CoV-2, was isolated in January 2020 after an outbreak of respiratory infections originated in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China (Zhu et al., 2020). The virus spread rapidly, first to neighboring countries and weeks afterward throughout the world, causing a worldwide pandemic.