Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
- A cluster of atypical viral pneumonia cases was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the cause, later named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Lai et al., 2020; Yu et al., 2020). The World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020, and by March 20, 2021, the total number of confirmed cases had exceeded 121 million worldwide, with over 2.6 million deaths (Shi et al., 2020). Some people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) while others remain asymptomatic or have a milder illness course (Shi et al., 2020).
- In December 2019, Wuhan City in Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China became the epicenter of the novel coronavirus disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Huang et al., 2020; WHO, 2020). The disease spread worldwide and the positivity rate increased exponentially, such that the World Health Organization declared the disease a pandemic on March 11, 2020. In the Sultanate of Oman, from two confirmed cases on February XX, 2020, the number of cases had reached 107 213, with 1053 deaths, as of October 13, 2020 (Dong et al., 2020; Khamis et al., 2020a,b).
- Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped single‐stranded RNA viruses with a highly diverse nature. Over the past two decades, two novel viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS‐CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS‐CoV), emerged to cause severe human disease. They were found to cause multiple symptomatic effects in respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurological systems in humans and animals. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2) is a newly emerging zoonotic coronavirus discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has been identified as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
- In late December 2019, China reported the first case of atypical pneumonia and it did not take a long time before it spread throughout the country and subsequently worldwide. The causative organism was found to be a virus (Lee & Hsueh, 2020). It was quickly confirmed by molecular testing to be from the coronaviruses group, which are enveloped single stranded RNA viruses of zoonotic origin. Later in January 2020, it was denoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 (World Health Organization, 2020).
- Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease that was first identified in China in December 2019. It is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the disease a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) and later on March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic (Gan et al., 2020). In Oman, the first two cases of COVID-19 were diagnosed on February 24, 2020; both cases were travel-related (Khamis et al., 2020).
- The novel coronavirus (“SARS-CoV-2”) pandemic continues to spread globally with an estimated 7,930,989 cases and 433,783 (Wikipedia - COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory, 2020) deaths (as of June 15, 2020) without available effective treatment or vaccine. In search of the cure, several randomized controlled clinical trials are in progress (Keith et al., 2020a,b). The SARS-CoV-2 virus infects the respiratory epithelium of the lower airways, causing widespread damage via cytopathic effects, resulting in severe inflammation and pneumonitis.