Coronavirus (COVID-19) Collection
- Since December 2019, COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide (Hayakawa et al., 2020). As of January 25th, 2022, 544 re-infected COVID-19 cases have been reported worldwide (BNO news. 2022; Inada et al., 2021).
- The COVID-19 outbreak in China at the end of 2019 had spread to Japan by early 2020. The surge in infected cases may have precipitated behavioral changes among physicians and patients, including increased unnecessary antimicrobial use (AU) that could promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
- Since December 2019, COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has been a major health threat worldwide (Hayakawa et al., 2020). The mRNA-based BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has demonstrated a high efficacy rate with an acceptable safety profile (Polack et al., 2020). In Japan, a nationwide mass BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination campaign was launched and rolled out at an exceptionally rapid pace with high vaccine acceptance. As of June 13, 2021, 14.0% (n=17 580 587) and 4.9% (n=6 104 732) of the population had received their first and second vaccine dose, respectively (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, 2021).
- Globally, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected more than 120 million individuals and caused 2.7 million deaths (Roser et al., 2021). As of 23 March 2021, there have been 457,754 cases and 8861 deaths in Japan (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, 2021), which is lower than the number of cases and deaths reported in other countries with outbreaks of COVID-19 (Roser et al., 2021).
- A 49-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in late March 2020, 6 days after onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). He received remdesivir in a clinical study. Oxygen supplementation was not required. Defervescence occurred 12 days after onset, and he was discharged 21 days after symptom onset. In mid-May 2020, he noticed alopecia on his head. He started taking self-imported minoxidil 5 mg/day and finasteride 1 mg/day in June 2020, and was still taking these medications at the time of writing.
- Nucleic acid detection by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the prime diagnostic modality for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Hanson et al., 2020). However, besides laboratories and major hospitals, few facilities have the necessary equipment for RT-PCR. Even if RT-qPCR can be performed, the test requires capital investment and significant manpower. Moreover, point-of-care RT-PCR testing equipment that eliminates the need for extraction and the preparation of reaction reagents have been developed; however, their installation cost remains a problem.
- A 50-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with a 14-day history of fever and sudden dyspnea. The patient was diagnosed with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) based on positive test results of RNA polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. He was started on mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). He received ECMO for 23 days and was tracheostomized on hospital day (HD) 37. His general condition improved by HD 54. On HD 61, periungual desquamation appeared on the fingers of left hand (Panel 1A), left palm (Panel 1B), and both feet (Panel 1C).
- The outbreak of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-2019) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 (Zhu et al., 2020). A large number of cases have since occurred outside China, and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak to be a pandemic in March 2020.